Probiotic is the general name of a range of multi-species probiotic products. Probiotic stands for a combination of several probiotic bacteria, mixed into a special matrix, which is based and developed on knowledge and experience.

The probiotic bacteria are the active and most important ingredients of the Probiotic. This formula has a collection of more than 70 different probiotic strains and for each Probiotic a special combination of 4 -10 strains is selected.



A healthy human intestinal flora contains around bacterial cells, divided over more than 400 species. Each species, or maybe even each strain, has its own functional properties. For this reason, it does not seem logical to use a probiotic product that contains just one single strain.

This Probiotic not only contains several probiotic strains, but we also try to make a combination of different species, i.e. not only several Lactobacilli (L.acidophilus, L.casei, L.plantarum), but also Bifidobacteria, Lactococci and Enterococci are added to Probiotic.



It is not possible to make a product that exactly reflects the healthy intestinal flora. Besides, that would be different for each person. The key objective is to make a selection of strains, depending on the final purpose of the product.

For instance a product that is designed to prevent traveller’s diarrhoea will contain other strains than a product that is especially developed to use during an antibiotic treatment. In case of a “general” probiotic, we try to make a selection of strains that contain as many probiotic properties as possible.



In literature, several probiotic properties have been defined. These are:

  • ° Survival of the GI-tract; resistance to stomach acids, bile and pancreatic enzymes
  • ° Inhibition of pathogens; production of antimicrobial compounds (acids, bacteriocines, H2O2, etc.) and competition for nutrients
  • ° Adherence to intestinal cells
  • ° Regulatory effects on the immune system; induction of cytokine production


Besides these probiotic properties, it is most important that the strains are able to survive in the product. Other important facts to consider are the influence of the probiotic strains on each other (positive or negative), growth speed and fermentation characteristics.

Based on the available information, the formula makes combinations of strains that result in effective probiotic products.



This document describes the functional properties of the probiotic strains that are used in Probiotic 500. The information is based on both scientific literature and results from in vitro experiments.



Bacterial strains:

  • Bifidobacterium lactis (formerly known as Bifidobacterium infantis)
  • Bifidobacterium lactis (formerly known as Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium lactis, due to identification these strains were indistinguishable from each other, and therefore now regarded as one strain)
  • Enterococcus faecium
  • Lactobacillus acidophilus
  • Lactobacillus paracasei
  • Lactobacillus plantarum
  • Lactobacillus salivarius
  • Lactococcus lactis

lac par



Bifidobacteria are microorganisms of paramount importance in the active and complex ecosystem of the intestinal tract of humans. They are distributed in various Probiotical niches in the human gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts, the exact ration of which is determined mainly by age and diet.

The indigenous microflora of infants is dominated by bifidobacteria, which becomes established shortly after birth. Their proliferation is stimulated by glycoprotein components of κ-casein in human colostrum and human milk.

The number of bifidobacteria decreases with increasing age of the individual and eventually becomes the third most abundant genus of the intestinal flora (after Bacteroides and Eubacterium).

The onset of old age is characterised by significant reductions in the numbers of bifidobacteria and also the profile of constituent species changes; B.infantis and B.breve, typical of infants, are replaced by B.adolescentis in adults, whereas B.longum persists lifelong.

This age profile may obviously be influenced by the dietary intake of bifidogenic factors and by the host physiology. [Gomes, 1999]

 bif inf


Bifidobacterium infantis is also a very stable strain, which has shown to survive the stomach passage in vitro very well and reaches the small intestine in high numbers.

Bifidobacteria have been previously shown to stimulate immune function. Furthermore, bifidobacteria and other lactic acid bacteria can improve anti-tumour activity of the host. It has been suggested that these activities arise from their ability to stimulate macrophages and T cells. [Park, 1999]

There is extensive evidence that cytokines play important roles in the host defence, inflammatory responses and autoimmune disease. Sekine et al. (1995) have proposed critical roles for cytokines in the anti-tumour promoting properties of B.infantis. [Park, 1999]

Macrophages play a major role in the host defence against infection and tumour formation. Of particular interest, the production of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by macrophages mediates killing or growth inhibition of tumour cells, bacteria, fungi and parasites.

H2O2 and NO are important macrophage mediators because they act as reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates during oxygen-dependent phagocytosis.

Bifidobacterium exposure markedly increased the production of NO and also the production of H2O2 was induced by Bifidobacterium infantis in certain concentrations (30-100µg bacteria per ml). [Park, 1999]

Macrophages may also regulate immunity via enhanced production of several mediators such as tumour necrosis factors (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6. Bifidobacterium infantis has shown to be able to stimulate the production of TNF-α and IL-6. [Park, 1999]

Recent clinical and experimental observations indicate an important role of intestinal microflora in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases.


It has recently been established that patients with IBD are characterized by a failure in colonic β-galactosidase activity and high levels of urease activity. Urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea, a major nitrogenous waste product of mammals, to yield ammonia and carbon dioxide.

Urease and ammonia enable pathogenic bacteria to survive in the gastrointestinal tract and contribute to mucosal tissue damage.

In contrast, β-galactosidase plays a positive role in the human gut: the impairment of glucosidase activity might induce a failure in metabolism of unabsorbed carbohydrates, such as that reported in ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.

Bifidobacterium infantis was specifically detected in feces of patients treated with the probiotic by using strain-specific PCR-primers. In addition, fecal β-galactosidase increased and urease activity decreased as a result of changes in the intestinal microbiota induced by B.infantis administration. [Brigidi, 2001]

Co-culture experiments whereby Bifidobacterium infantis was incubated with Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens, in a variety of fermentation systems, indicated that B.infantis was able to exert an inhibitory effect not necessarily related to acid production.

Further studies showed that B.infantis could excrete an antimicrobial substance with a broad spectrum of activities. Species belonging to Salmonella, Listeria, Campylobacter and Shigella, as well as Vibrio cholerae, were all affected.

These results show that bifidobacteria are able to exert more than one mechanism of inhibition, which may be of some importance with regard to protection against gastroenteritis. [Gomes, 1999]

 Bif lac



Diarrhoea associated with rotavirus and Escherichia coli is one of the major gastrointestinal problems faced by human infants. Using a piglet model, the authors investigated the protective effectiveness of probiotic feeding against naturally acquired diarrhoea in weanlings.

Compared with the controls, piglets that received B.lactis had a lower severity of weaning diarrhoea and maintained a greater feed conversion efficacy during weaning.

The protective effect of probiotic feeding was associated with lower concentrations of fecal rotavirus and E.coli, higher blood leukocyte phagocytic and T-lymphocyte proliferate responses, and higher gastro-intestinal tract pathogen-specific antibody titers.


The results show that dietary treatment using B.lactis can reduce the severity of weanling diarrhoea associated with Rotavirus and E.coli, possibly via a mechanism of enhanced immune-mediated protection. This study suggests that probiotic treatment may be an effective dietary means of preventing diarrhoea in human infants. [Shu, 2001]

The adhesion abilities of B.lactis were measured in vitro by Gopal et al. by using Caco-2 and HT-29 cell lines. Adhesion and colonization of probiotic bacteria in the gastro-intestinal tract of the host is believed to be one of the essential features required for delivering their health benefits. B.lactis showed strong adhesion with the cell lines used.

The inhibitory effect of adhering strains against the intestinal colonization by enterotoxigenic E.coli O157 was also investigated. B.lactis reduced the culturable E.coli numbers and also reduced the invasiveness and cell association characteristics of this toxic strain. [Gopal, 2001]


Enhancement of immunity in elderly by dietary supplementation with the probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis was shown by Gill et al. The aging process can lead to a decline in cellular immunity.

Therefore, the elderly could benefit from safe and effective interventions that restore cellular immune functions. B.lactis could be an effective probiotic dietary supplement for enhancing some aspects of cellular immunity in elderly.

Increases in proportions of total, helper (CD4+) and activated (CD25+) T lymphocytes and natural killer cells were measured in the subjects’ blood after consumption of B.lactis.

The ex vivo phagocytic capacity of mononuclear and polymorpholonuclear phagocytes and the tumouricidal activity of natural killer cells was also elevated in the elderly subjects after B.lactis consumption.

This study showed that a relatively low dose of B.lactis improved cellular immunity. There were no adverse reactions to continuous consumption of B.lactis for 3 weeks, confirming the biological safety of the strain. [Gill, 2001]

Another study to determine the effects of dietary consumption of B.lactis on natural immunity in elderly subjects was performed by Arunachalam et al. 25 healthy elderly volunteers consumed B.lactis or (placebo) for 6 weeks.


The subjects who consumed milk containing B.lactis produced significantly enhanced levels of interferon-alpha, upon stimulation of their peripheral blood mononuclear cells in culture, in comparison to the placebo group who received milk alone.

There were also significant increases in polymorphonuclear cell phagocytic capacity among test group subjects, following consumption of milk supplemented with B.lactis.

The results demonstrate that dietary consumption of B.lactis can enhance natural immunity in healthy elderly subjects, and that a relatively short term dietary regime is sufficient to impart measurable improvements in immunity that may offer significant health benefits to consumers. [Arunachalam, 2000]

Over the last two decades the incidence of allergic diseases has increased in industrialized countries, and consequently new approaches have to be explored. The potential of probiotics to control allergic inflammation at an early age was assessed in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, using B.lactis.

The results provide the first clinical demonstration of a specific probiotic strain modifying the changes related to allergic inflammation. The data further indicate that probiotics may counteract inflammatory responses beyond the intestinal milieu.

The combined effects of these probiotic strains will guide infants through the weaning period, when sensitising to newly encountered antigens is initiated. [Isolauri, 2000]


Probiotics have been shown to alleviate intestinal inflammation, as measured by faecal TNFα, and to promote the gut barrier functions, as directly evaluated by macromolecular absorption, and to normalize altered gut microecology.

In addition to diminishing clinical signs and symptoms of atopic eczema, alleviation of allergic inflammation was supported by reduction of sCD4 in serum and EPX in urine of patients receiving B.lactis.

Soluble CD4 has been found to be elevated in several diseases associated with chronic inflammation, while urinary EPX has been shown to reflect the activity of allergic inflammation in childhood asthma. [Isolauri, 2000]

The anti-infectious effect of probiotics has recently been reported and one mechanism may be the non-specific stimulation of immunity. Fukushima et al. performed this study to elucidate the influence of a probiotic formula (B.lactis) on the intestinal microflora and local immunity in healthy children.


During the intake of the formula, the administered strain was detected in feces from 71% of the subjects and total fecal bifidobacteria slightly increased.

Fecal levels of total IgA and antipoliovirus IgA during intake of the formula were significantly higher than those before intake. The increase in local IgA levels resulting from ingestion of the probiotic formula may contribute to enhancement of the mucosal resistance against gastrointestinal infections. [Fukushima, 1998]

Secretory Immunoglobulin A (IgA) plays a central role in local immunity and has a significant function in creating a barrier against infections by pathogenic bacteria or viruses.


The ingestion of the probiotic formula containing B.lactis and colonization by the strain could trigger IgA production by the host.

Weaned children cannot obtain IgA passively from breast milk, and therefore may be at risk from infectious diseases. Follow up formula with probiotic bacteria may have great potential for preventing infections in children during and after weaning by enhancing the mucosal resistance to infections by active stimulation of local IgA production. [Fukushima, 1998]

 bif long


Preoperative dietary restriction is associated with a high incidence of infectious complications in surgical patients. Dietary restrictions (before surgery) impairs polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) recruitment into the local inflammatory site, resulting in susceptibility to infection.

PMNs are the first-line effector cells against microbial effector cells against microbial infection and impaired PMN recruitment into the local inflammatory site may cause susceptibility to infection.

Developing an effective remedy for impaired PMN recruitment induced by insufficient oral intake is required for preventing and treating septic complications in surgical patients.

Probiotics enhance host immunity via conditioning host intestinal microflora.


The results of a study by Hidemura et al. showed that oral administration of B.longum unregulated PMN recruitment and enhanced the host immunity responses by conditioning the intestinal microflora.[Hidemura, 2003]

The anti-oxidative effect of lactic acid bacteria has been reported only recently. Although oxidation is essential to many living organisms for the production of energy to fuel biological processes, oxidative stress can damage biological molecules. It is well established that oxygen-centred free radicals and other oxidative species are continuously produced in vivo.

Oxidation and aging are closely related. Oxidative damage also plays an important pathological role in cancer, emphysema, cirrhosis, atherosclerosis, and arthritis.

For the determination of anti-oxidative activity, inhibition of lipid peroxidation is commonly utilized for analysis. Unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid are typically used. The antioxidative activity of B.longum was measured based on the inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation in this study.


The ability of B.longum to protect intestinal cells from the cytotoxity of 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4NQO; a mutagen and carcinogen), which causes DNA oxidative damage, was also evaluated.

B.longum demonstrated an antioxidative effect on the inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation.

Also the cytotoxity of 4NQO to intestinal cells was reduced by intact cells of B.longum. The cytotoxity inhibition rate was 89%. [Lin & Chang, 2000]


The production of free radicals and many diseases are closely related. Therefore the ability of B.longum to scavenge DPPH, a free radical, was studied. The results indicate that the radical scavenging ability of B.longum contributes to the antioxidative effect.

[Lin & Chang, 2000]

When B.longum is administered orally to germ-free mice, the bacteria colonize the intestinal tract and reach a concentration of 109-1010/g intestinal content in 2-3 days.

Translocation of the colonized B.longum to the MLN (mesenteric lymph nodes), liver and kidney occurs between 1 and 2 weeks after the association, but the translocated B.longum causes neither infection nor any harmful effect.

Furthermore, the translocated B.longum disappears after week 4, clearly showing inhibition of translocation.

This inhibition is thought to be associated with T-lymphocyte-mediated immunity.

The administration of B.longum to the germ-free mice results in an increased production of total immunoglobulin A and anti-B.longum immunoglobulin A antibody. [Ishibashi, 2001]


Another interesting finding is that a lower toxicity is observed when B.longum-monoassociated mice are challenged with E.coli. When B.longum monoassociated mice were challenged with a sub lethal dose of E.coli O111 or E.coli O157, translocation was detected in the beginning but undetectable after 7 days and no death was observed.

In contrast, from the germfree mice (no B.longum) that were challenged with E.coli O111 or O157, 64% died after 18 h. [Ishibashi, 2001]

 ent fae


This bacterium may have a favourable effect on diarrhoea. This has especially been shown for E. faecium within a group of 104 children of up to 9 years of age. E. faecium (the SF-68) produced the fastest reduction of diarrhoea and of the number of pathogens in the intestine10.

Moreover, there is literature on the anticarcinogenic effect of this strain11. The effect of oral administration of bacteria and bacterial products on the stimulation of macrophage activity has been investigated in a model system of TBR (tumour bearing rats). Suspensions of Buccalin (Diplococcus pneumoniae I-II-III, Str. haemolyticus, Staph. aureus, Haemophilus influenza), Bioflorin (E. faecium) and Liobifar (B. subtilis) in water were administered.


Three times a day 1-7.5*109 per administration was given, 10 days after inducing the tumour. After 20 days of treatment a reduction in tumour mass by a factor 3 was found.

Phagocytosis is stimulated by all three preparations. The motility of the macrophages increases as well.


Extensive investigation has been carried out into favourable effects of probiotics on hypercholesterolemia. Although in the literature opinions diverge on this point, positive reports concern E. Faecium specifically. In one of these studies a significant decrease of the level of LDL-cholesterol was found in a group of older Danish men12.

Furthermore E. faecium proves to be among the active strains in investigations into activity against Listeria monocytogenes13. This activity is ascribed to the so-called ‘enterocines’ two of which are produced by E. faecium14. The synergistic activities of these enterocines are extensively described by Casaus et al15.


During the last few years a lot of publications appeared concerning the risks certain inhabitants of the intestine may present as to the incidence of sepsis. Among the strains discussed E. faecium is seen rather frequently.

In these situations E. faecium especially creates a risk because the strain under investigation proves to be Vancomycin-resistant which is of course highly undesirable. We had the strain applied by us investigated as to this point and were able to establish that it is in fact Vancomycin-sensitive and that it does not contain the genes responsible for resistance16. The presence of E. faecium in the human intestine is a fact.


Therefore, when applying a probiotic it is of the utmost importance to see to it that the intestinal population contains a Vancomycin-sensitive E. faecium. Apart from the aforementioned qualities of this strain, applying a Vancomycin-sensitive E. faecium in a probiotic is therefore highly desirable.

 lac acid


L.acidophilus was examined in vitro for characteristics indicating suitability for probiotic application to the urogenital tract. L.acidophilus adhered to urogenital cells and produced biosurfractants which significantly inhibited uropathogenic enterococci adhesion.

The anaerobic growth properties and biosurfractant production might allow L.acidophilus to be competitive against anaerobic gram-negative organisms that cause bacterial vaginosis. [Reid, 2000]


Consumption of LAB has been suggested to confer a range of health benefits including stimulation of the immune system and increased resistance to malignancy and infectious illness. In a study by Gill et al. the effects of feeding L.acidophilus on in vivo and in vitro indices of natural and acquired immunity in healthy mice were examined.

Mice were fed daily L.acidophilus and their immune function was assessed. Supplementation with L.acidophilus resulted in a significant increase in the phagocytic activity of peripheral blood leucocytes and peritoneal macrophages compared with the control mice. [Gill, 2000]


The adhering human strain L.acidophilus strain inhibits the cell association and cell invasion of enteropathogens in cultured human intestinal Caco-2 cells. It was demonstrated that L.acidophilus developed its antibacterial activity in conventional or germ-free mouse models orally infected by Salmonella typhimurium.

Evidence is presented that the spent culture supernatant of L.acidophilus contained antibacterial components active against S.typhimurium infecting the cultured human intestinal caco-2 cells.


The antibacterial activity was observed in vitro against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter cloacae.

By contrast, no activity was observed against species of the normal gut flora, such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. [Bernet-Camard, 1997]


Heart disease is a major cause of death for humans. High concentrations of total serum cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol correlate highly with the incidence of coronary heart disease.

Several reports have indicated that the consumption of certain cultured dairy products or culture containing dairy products supplemented with L.acidophilus reduced concentrations of serum cholesterol.

Conditions for cholesterol assimilation by L.acidophilus included anaerobic growth conditions and the presence of bile salts, both of which occur in the small intestine. [De rodas, 1996]

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The antimicrobial activity of intraurethrally administered probiotic Lactobacillus casei against Escherichia coli in a murine urinary tract infection (UTI) model was examined. UTI was induced by intraurethral administration of Escherichia coli.

A single administration of L.casei before the challenge with E.coli dramatically inhibited E.coli growth and inflammatory responses in the urinary tract.

Multiple daily treatments with L.casei during the post infection period also showed antimicrobial activity in this UTI model.

The results suggest that the probiotic L.casei strain is a potent therapeutic agent for urinary tract infections. [Asahara, 2001]


The effect of ingested viable L.casei on an oral infection with the enteric pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in rats was investigated. It was shown that supplementation of L.casei significantly reduced the numbers of L.monocytogenes in stomach, caecum, faeces, spleen and liver, 2 days after L.monocytogenes infection. It was also shown that L.casei was able to increase cellular immunity significantly. [de Waard, 2002]

The effect of the consumption of L.casei on the composition and metabolic activities of the intestinal microflora was investigated.

In comparison to the control group, the consumption of L.casei resulted in an increase of the Lactobacillus count in the feces in which the administered L.casei was predominantly present. Some shifts in other species were found, such as a decrease in Clostridium.


The β-glucuronidase and β-glucosidase activities decreased significantly. Since these enzymes may be involved in chemical carcinogenesis, this effect could be viewed as beneficial. [Spanhaak, 1998]

Also well demonstrated is the effect of lactic acid bacteria as adjuvant on the mucosal and systemic immune response. Previous reports lead us to study if some LAB, such as L.casei is able to modulae IgE synthesis in a mouse experimental model of allergy (induced by ovalbumin).

In the control animal, an increase in the IgE levels, with diminution in the IFN-γ production and high level of IL-4 release was observed. In the animal treated with L.casei a down regulation of IgE synthesis by increasing of IFN-γ and diminuation of IL-4 cytokines was determined.

These results indicate that the L.casei would induce Th1 activation able to increase IFN-γ cytokine with diminuation of IL-4 released by Th2 lymphocytes avoiding the switch toward IgE synthesis. The strain would be able to modulate Th1/Th2 cytokine balance. [Fontenla de Petrino, 2002]


Induction of IgE synthesis is under control of Th2 cytokines. Some of these cytokines, such as IFN-γ, control the production of IgE by B cells and play an important role in the activation and differentiation of effector cells, eosinophils and mast cells in the allergic response.

The critical role of IL-4 in the stimulation of IgE production has been demonstrated in different experimental models. In contrast IFN-γ has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on in vitro IgE production by murine and human lymphocytes.

IgE is important in the early and late phase of allergic responses, thus the regulation of this immunoglobulin by L.casei is important in the prevention of allergic diseases. [Fontenla de Petrino, 2002]

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In a Helicobacter pylori infected gnotobiotic murine model, it was measured whether L.salivarius was capable of producing a high amount of lactic acid and thus completely suppresses the growth of H.pylori and reduces the inflammatory response.

L.salivarius was found to be a potentially effective probiotic against H.pylori. The results implied that the amount of lactic acid produced by L.salivarius is sufficient to degrade the urease of H.pylori and consequently kill this bacterium in vitro.


In a murine model, (mice infected with H.pylori) the antibody titer to H.pylori, which is considered to represent the bacterial load and subsequent inflammatory response by the host, also became marginal in L.salivarius dosed mice, thus indicating an efficient suppression of H.pylori and the regression of inflammation in these mice.

In parallel with the increase of the number of colonizing L.salivarius, the amount of lactic acid increased and consequently, in reverse, the number of H.pylori also decreased. [Aiba, 1998]


In a study by Pascual et al. it was investigated if the use of L.salivarius could reduce the colonization of Salmonella enteritidis in broilers.

When the probiotic strain was dosed by oral gavage together with S.enteritidis directly into the proventriculus in 1 day old Leghorn chickens, or mixed into the feed or drinking water, the pathogen was completely removed from the birds after 21 days. Good colonization results of L.salivarius were shown. [Pascual, 1999]


There is an increasing body of evidence that probiotics can modulate the immune system of the host, both at a local mucosal immune system level and systematically. In using probiotics to promote immune function, and thereby afford the host better protection, the aim is to enhance non-specific immunity without triggering a pro-inflammatory response that could potentially be harmful.

L.salivarius showed a significant increase in granulocyte phagocytic activity. It was established that L.salivarius can modulate the immune system in healthy humans, boosting innate immune defence mechanisms. [Matilla-sandholm, 1999]

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a term used to cover a range of incurable, immune mediated diseases, that result in chronic relapsing inflammation of the gut. The two major clinical forms of IBD are Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. The composition and activity of the intestinal microbiota have been implicated to play an important role in these diseases.


Therefore, it has been proposed that probiotics may assist in controlling IBD by beneficially modulating the intestinal microbiota. It is postulated that feeding L.salivarius produced beneficial modifications to the intestinal microbiota, resulting in reduced inflammation and therefore a decrease in cancer incidence. [Matilla-sandholm, 1999]

L.salivarius was used in human studies with patients with active IBD.

The patients did consider that the probiotic improved their quality of life and most cases requested to continue probiotic therapy.

Colonic biopsy showed that the L.salivarius strain colonized in both the healthy and inflamed mucosa throughout the colon. [Matilla-sandholm, 1999]


In a mice model, the potential benefits of L.salivarius (combined with B.longum infantis) in modifying the effects of IBD were also evaluated. The results of this study showed that L.salivarius (in combination with Bifidobacterium) significantly reduced disease severity as manifested by reduced weight loss, improvement of colon pathology and markedly improved appearance of the mice over a six week period.

All control mice developed a chronic wasting disease. [Dunne, 1999]


In an in vitro experiment it was found that L.salivarius is capable of inhibiting several gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Significantly, L.salivarius nor its supernatant were found capable of impairing the in vitro growth of closely related lactic acid bacteria (other Lactobacilli).

Inhibition of E.coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas spp., Salmonella spp and Staphylococcus aureus was shown. [Dunne, 1999]

lac lac


The use of lactic acid bacteria in the production of fermented foods has a long history. The application of these starter bacteria is aimed mainly at the production of foods with longer shelf life and better organoleptic properties.

The most commonly used starter bacteria include strains of Lactococcus lactis, which are used in the manufacturing of many cheeses and other fermented dairy products. [Klijn, 1995]


For the application of Lactococcus lactis as a probiotic, it is important to determine whether these bacteria survive in the gastrointestinal tract after consumption by humans.

This was tested in volunteers.


With molecular techniques the feces of the volunteers was analyzed after consumption of Lc.lactis and the strain was found. It was evident that Lc.lactis survived the passage of the gastrointestinal tract. [Klijn, 1995]

The synthesis and secretion by Lactococcus lactis of the very acid-sensitive cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10). Numerous studies on the in vivo and in vitro activities of IL-10 suggest an important role for this cytokine in immune regulation. Of particular interest in this respect is its possible clinical use as a therapeutic in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). [Schotte, 2000]

Finally, this strain is known for the production of nisin, a very strong and broad-spectrum bacteriocin, which is effective against several pathogens.



References available

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NOTE: The information in this document is not intended to replace orthodox medical treatment. The information offered in this document is offered as additional complimentary information.